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 Discover! Weather Volume 3: Weather Forecasting and Climate Change

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Discover! Weather Volume 3: Weather Forecasting and Climate Change

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Discover! Science Library

ScienceSchoolHouse’s new Discover! Science Library for grades 6-8 and 9-12, has the following features and components:

  1. Interactive multimedia tutorials: Each unit includes up to 200 screens with text and pictures/illustrations plus interactive exercises and lots of video clips. All core text is fully narrated (with an on/off option). Built to pedagogically correct standards with appendices for advanced research.
  2. Two text levels: Students can toggle between grades 9-12 and grades 6-8 text levels or stay at one of the two text levels throughout. All vocabulary checked for age appropriateness.
  3. One 30-minute, high-resolution, digital video associated with each unit, with content indexing and one-click navigation.
  4. Quizzes for the students and Test Banks for teachers.
  5. Teacher’s Guides and state and national curriculum correlations on our website.

System Requirements

Microsoft Internet Explorer 7+, Firefox 10+, Safari 4+, Opera 9+

In this unit:

Quizzes and Test Banks

Manual

Interactive Exercises

  • 1_2 Natural Weather Clues
  • 1_20 Weather Chart Symbols
  • 2_3 Backyard Weather Station
  • 2_5 Atmospheric Temperatures
  • 4_1 Glaciers
  • 4_2 Climate Zones of North America
  • 4_5 Temperatures Over the Last 20 Millennia
  • 4_7 Radiation Budget
  • 4_8 Earth's Precession
  • 4_8 Milankovitch Cycles
  • 4_10 Solar Incidence
  • 4_13 EM Spectrum Properties

Movies and Animations

  • 1_1 The Weather
  • 1_3 Sea Surface Temperature
  • 1_6 Local Weather Observation Stations
  • 1_10 Pilots and Weather
  • 1_13 Composite Satellite Views
  • 1_22 Isobars
  • 1_23 Warm Front
  • 1_29 Coriolis Effect
  • 2_10 Cloud Data Set
  • 3_5 World Cloud Cover
  • 3_7 Weather Map
  • 3_8 Wind Sensors
  • 4_1 Ablation - The Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica
  • 4_4 El Nino
  • 4_5 Measuring Ice Thickness
  • 4_7 Solar Wind
  • 4_8 Tilt and Weather
  • 4_9 20,000 Years - Antarctica's Ice Pack
  • 4_10 Outgoing and Reflected Radiation
  • 4_11 Ice Albedo
  • 4_12 Heat From the Sun
  • 4_13 Earth's Magnetic Field
  • 4_16 Solar Radiation
  • 4_18 Carbon Dioxide
  • 4_22 Greenhouse Warming
  • 4_23 Global Warming
  • 4_27 Phytoplankton Concentration
  • 4_28 Greenhouse Gases
  • 5_1 Wave Height and Temperature
  • 5_2 Polar Sea Ice 1990s
  • 5_3 Arctic Ice
  • 5_4 Antarctic Ice
  • 5_5 Sea Surface Temperatures
  • 5_6 Ocean Temperatures
  • 5_7 North Atlantic Ocean Temperatures
  • 5_8 North Pacific Ocean Temperatures
  • 5_10 Chlorophyll
  • 5_11 North Atlantic Chlorophyll
  • 5_12 North Pacific Chlorophyll

Interactive Multimedia Lessons, Tables of Contents

Chapter 1: Forecasting the Weather

  • 1.1 A Difficult Task
  • 1.2 Endless Combinations
  • 1.3 Weather People
  • 1.4 At the Weather Station
  • 1.5 Where it Starts
  • 1.6 Weather Watch
  • 1.7 Condensed Information
  • 1.8 Code
  • 1.9 And There's More
  • 1.10 The Distant Eye
  • 1.11 Geostationary Satellites
  • 1.12 Polar-orbiting Satellites
  • 1.13 What For?
  • 1.14 Key to Forecasting
  • 1.15 Dots and Patterns
  • 1.16 Numeric Forecasting
  • 1.17 International Cooperation
  • 1.18 Supercomputers
  • 1.19 Charting the Weather
  • 1.20 Circles and Flags
  • 1.21 Contours
  • 1.22 Isobars
  • 1.23 Warm and Cold Fronts
  • 1.24 Occluded Front
  • 1.25 Pressure Patterns
  • 1.26 Why the Winds Blow
  • 1.27 Pressure Gradients
  • 1.28 Reading the Isobars
  • 1.29 Coriolis Again
  • 1.30 Friction
  • 1.31 Back to 3-D Thinking

Chapter 2: Backyard Meteorology

  • 2.1 Joining the Weather Watch
  • 2.2 What You Need
  • 2.3 Setting Up
  • 2.4 Taking Readings
  • 2.5 Temperature
  • 2.6 Air Pressure
  • 2.7 Relative Humidity
  • 2.8 Rain and Snow
  • 2.9 Wind Direction
  • 2.10 Clouds
  • 2.11 Other Conditions
  • 2.12 Data Fun

Chapter 3: Reading Weather Charts

  • 3.1 Weather Map Symbols
  • 3.2 Surface Temperatures
  • 3.3 Surface Air Pressures
  • 3.4 Moving Weather Fronts
  • 3.5 Fronts, Clouds and Rain
  • 3.6 Above the Surface
  • 3.7 Synoptic Weather Maps
  • 3.8 What the Satellite Sees

Chapter 4: Climate and Climate Change

  • 4.1 Ice Ages Ago
  • 4.2 What is Climate?
  • 4.3 Climate Cycles
  • 4.4 Climate Connections
  • 4.5 Traces of Ancient Weather
  • 4.6 The Little Ice Age
  • 4.7 Solar Influence
  • 4.8 Orbital Shape and Axial Tilt
  • 4.9 Small Difference, Big Change
  • 4.10 Solar Radiation Budget
  • 4.11 Reflections
  • 4.12 What Next?
  • 4.13 Energy Transformed
  • 4.14 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
  • 4.15 Inside a Greenhouse
  • 4.16 Earth Traps the Heat
  • 4.17 A Comfortable Balance
  • 4.18 Greenhouse Gases
  • 4.19 Seasonal Differences
  • 4.20 The Human Role
  • 4.21 The Carbon Cycle
  • 4.22 The Question
  • 4.23 Why Don’t We Know?
  • 4.24 Feedback Loops
  • 4.25 More Heat
  • 4.26 The Oceans
  • 4.27 More Meddling or Less?
  • 4.28 What Will Global Warming Do?
  • 4.29 Reasons to Worry
  • 4.30 Facing the Issues

Chapter 5: Remote Sensing of Ocean Climate

  • 5.1 Introduction to Remote Sensing of the Oceans
  • 5.2 Ice Concentrations
  • 5.3 Arctic Ice Concentrations
  • 5.4 Antarctic Ice Concentrations
  • 5.5 Sea Surface Temperatures
  • 5.6 Temperatures of the Global Oceans
  • 5.7 Temperatures of the North Atlantic
  • 5.8 Temperatures of the North Pacific
  • 5.9 Ocean Color
  • 5.10 Chlorophyll Around the World
  • 5.11 Chlorophyll in the North Atlantic
  • 5.12 Chlorophyll in the North Pacific
  • 5.13 Exploration of the Oceans
  • 5.24 Highlights of 1995-96

Note: Appendices A, B and C are common to all Discover! titles.

Appendix A: Scientific Method

  • A.1 The Need to Know
  • A.2 What Makes Science Different?
  • A.3 Induction
  • A.4 The Scientific Method
  • A.5 Hypothesis and Deduction
  • A.6 Experiments and Observation
  • A.7 Acceptance of Hypotheses
  • A.8 Theories and Laws
  • A.9 The Cycle of Scientific Inquiry
  • A.10 Scientists Build Models
  • A.11 Scientific Theories and Revolutions
  • A.12 Scientists Doing Science
  • A.13 Open Communication
  • A.14 Ethical Responsibilities
  • A.15 Role of Technology
  • A.16 Science and Society

Appendix B: Measurement Systems and SI Units

  • B.1 The Need for Common Units
  • B.2 Some Old Units of Measurement
  • B.3 Problems with Different Measurement Systems
  • B.4 The SI (Metric) System
  • B.5 Basic Units of SI
  • B.6 Derived Units
  • B.7 More Derived Units
  • B.8 Decimal Multipliers
  • B.9 SI Prefixes
  • B.10 Scientific Notation
  • B.11 Large and Small Numbers
  • B.12 Exact and Approximate Numbers
  • B.13 Precision Measurements
  • B.14 Significant Figures
  • B.15 Scientific Notation and Precision
  • B.16 Accuracy and Precision
  • B.17 Dangers of Many Digits
  • B.18 Working with Scientific Notation

Appendix C: Careers in Science

  • C.1 Careers in Science
  • C.2 Careers in Geology
  • C.3 Careers in Oceanography
  • C.4 Careers in Atmospheric Science
  • C.5 Careers in Astronomy
  • C.6 Geological Field Safety

Appendix D: El Nino

  • D.1 Introduction to El Nino
  • D.2 Global Impacts of El Nino
  • D.3 What is El Nino?
  • D.4 El Nino Conditions
  • D.5 Winds
  • D.6 Temperatures
  • D.7 Sea Surface Temperature in a Normal Year
  • D.8 Sea Surface Temperature in an El Nino Year
  • D.9 Definitions of El Nino, La Nina, and ENSO
  • D.10 Benefits of El Nino Prediction
  • D.11 Regional Consequences of El Nino for the U.S.

Appendix E: The Climate System

  • E.1 An introduction to the science of man-made climate change
  • E.2 The role of greenhouse gases
  • E.3 An introduction to the climate system
  • E.4 Radiation, climate, and climate change
  • E.5 Is the Earth warming up yet?
  • E.6 How records from past climates support the case for global warming
  • E.7 Measuring the “global warming potential” of greenhouse gases
  • E.8 Why three hot summers don’t mean global warming
  • E.9 Why “climate change” and “global warming” are not the same thing
  • E.10 The “missing carbon” problem
  • E.11 How much will the climate change?
  • E.12 How climate models work
  • E.13 Are climate models reliable?
  • E.14 What happens when we double CO2 in a climate model?
  • E.15 How natural climate variability differs from climate change
  • E.16 How researchers develop regional scenarios of climate change
  • E.17 Oceans and the carbon cycle
  • E.18 Ocean circulation patterns

Appendix F: The Effects of Climate Change

  • F.1 The impact of climate change on agriculture
  • F.2 Climate change and sea level
  • F.3 Climate change and desertification
  • F.4 The impact of climate change on water resources
  • F.5 Will climate change lead to more extremes and disasters?
  • F.6 How climate change might impact the European Alps
  • F.7 A survey of possible social impacts
  • F.8 Are we overlooking the social and political implications of climate change?
  • F.9 Climate change and North-South relations
  • F.10 The issue of winners and losers
  • F.11 Why the poor are most vulnerable
  • F.12 Will there be growing numbers of environmental migrants?
  • F.13 Will the North-South gap widen?
  • F.14 More conflict between nations?
  • F.15 Societies under stress
  • F.16 The possible health effects
  • F.17 The possible cultural and psychological impacts
  • F.18 Egypt and climate change

Appendix G: Stratospheric Ozone

  • G.1 What is the stratosphere?
  • G.2 How is the composition of air described? (What is a ‘mixing ratio’?)
  • G.3 How does the composition of the atmosphere change with altitude?
  • G.4 How is ozone created and how much is there? (Dobson Units)
  • G.5 How is ozone distributed in the stratosphere?
  • G.6 What are the natural variations of the ozone layer?
  • G.7 What are CFCs?
  • G.8 How do CFCs destroy ozone?
  • G.9 What is an “Ozone Depletion Potential”?
  • G.10 What about HCFCs and HFCs? Do they destroy ozone?
  • G.11 Is the ozone layer getting thinner?
  • G.12 Is the middle-latitude ozone loss due to CFC emissions?
  • G.13 Will UV penetrate deeper and make more ozone?
  • G.14 Do Space Shuttle launches damage the ozone layer?
  • G.15 Will commercial supersonic aircraft damage the ozone layer?
  • G.16 What is being done about ozone depletion?
  • G.17 Where does the chlorine in the stratosphere come from?
  • G.18 How has stratospheric chlorine changed with time?
  • G.19 How will stratospheric chlorine change in the future?
  • G.20 What are the sources of chlorine in the troposphere?
  • G.21 In what molecules is stratospheric chlorine found?
  • G.22 What happens to organic chlorine in the stratosphere?
  • G.23 How do we know that CFCs are photolyzed in the stratosphere?
  • G.24 How is chlorine removed from the stratosphere?
  • G.25 How is chlorine distributed in the stratosphere?
  • G.26 What happens to the Fluorine from the CFCs?
  • G.27 Summary of the evidence
  • G.28 CFCs are heavier than air, so how can they reach the stratosphere?
  • G.29 CFCs are produced in the north, so how do they get to the Antarctic?
  • G.30 Sea salt puts more chlorine into the atmosphere than CFCs
  • G.31 Do volcanoes put more chlorine into the stratosphere than CFCs?
  • G.32 Do space shuttles put a lot of chlorine into the stratosphere?
  • G.33 Most CFCs are decomposed by terrestrial mechanisms

Appendix H: The Ozone Hole

  • H.1 What is the Antarctic ozone hole?
  • H.2 How big is the hole, and is it getting bigger?
  • H.3 When did the hole first appear?
  • H.4 How far back do Antarctic ozone measurements go?
  • H.5 Why is the hole in the Antarctic?
  • H.6 What is the evidence for the present theory?
  • H.7 Will the ozone hole keep growing?
  • H.8 Lateral extent of the hole
  • H.9 Vertical depth of the hole
  • H.10 Duration of the hole
  • H.11 Why be concerned about Antarctica?
  • H.12 Is there an ozone hole in the Arctic?
  • H.13 Can the hole be “plugged”?
  • H.14 What is “UV-B”?
  • H.15 How does UV-B vary from place to place?
  • H.16 Is UV-B at the Earth’s surface increasing?
  • H.17 What is the relationship between UV and skin cancer?
  • H.18 Is ozone loss to blame for the melanoma upsurge?
  • H.19 Does UV-B cause cataracts?
  • H.20 Are sheep going blind in Chile?
  • H.21 What effects does increased UV have on plant life?
  • H.22 What effects does increased UV have on marine life?
  • H.23 Is UV-B responsible for the amphibian decline?
  • H.24 References

xMedia Movie

Earth’s Oceans from Space

  • Introduction
  • Introduction to Earth's Oceans
  • The Earth System
  • Oceans in Motion - Tides and Currents
  • The Gulf Stream
  • Ocean Temperature and Heat Storage
  • Oceans' Effects on Weather
  • Hurricanes
  • Weather vs. Climate
  • El Nino
  • Temperature, Wave Height and Wind Speed
  • Students Take Ocean Measurements from a Boat
  • Satellite Measurements;
  • Topex Poseidon
  • Radar Altimeters
  • How Accurate are Satellite Measurements?
  • Profile of NASA/Goddard Employee
  • Scatterometer
  • Data is Numbers Sent to Earth
  • Ocean Winds and Waves Color Coding
  • Ocean Questions
  • Ocean Color and Clarity - Introduction to Measurements
  • Ocean Life and Plankton
  • Zooplankton and Phytoplankton
  • Ocean Color from Space
  • SeaWiFS
  • Profile of NASA/Goddard Employee
  • Color - Reflection, Absorption and SeaWiFS
  • Phytoplankton Bloom
  • El Nino Disrupts Phytoplankton
  • La Nina
  • Summary of El Nino and La Nina and CO2
  • The Global Carbon Cycle
  • Summary of Ocean Studies

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